Acupuncture treats Plantar Fasciitis - New Research
New research proves that acupuncture relieves the pain of plantar fasciitis. Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammatory condition of the foot. Plantar fasciitis pain is usually perceived on the underside foot/heel and is often most painful with the first footsteps of the day. Also, plantar fasciitis may cause pain upon dorsiflexion (raising the ankle so that the foot is lifted towards the shin).
This randomized, controlled study is interesting in that only one acupuncture point was tested for efficacy. In most studies, a combination of points are used to determine whether or not acupuncture is effective for reducing pain. The study tested point P7 (Daling, "Big Tomb"). P7 is located in the middle of the transverse crease of the wrist between the tendons of the m. palmaris longus and m. flexor carpi radialis on the palmer side of the body. P7 is a Shu-Stream point and Yuan (Primary) acupuncture point that is known for the treatment of Heart and Spirit related issues including myocarditis, palpitations, insomnia, mental illness, irritability, and cardiac pain. P7 is also used for Stomach related conditions, however, nearby point P6 is a more common point for the treatment of Stomach issues such as stomachache, nausea, and vomiting.
According to Chinese medicine and acupuncture theory, Shu-Stream points treat a heavy sensation of the of the body and painful joints. P7 is therefore a common point for the treatment of wrist pain because it is a Shu-Stream point located at the wrist . However, the researchers have chosen P7 for the wrist's distal relationship to the ankle and heel region.
In this study, P7 was needled bilaterally if the pain of the heel/foot was bilateral. Contra-lateral acupuncture needling was used if the pain was unilateral. The needles were 15mm long with a 0.25mm gauge. The acupuncture needles were inserted perpendicularly to a depth of approximately 10mm with slight rotation and thrusting to achieve the Deqi sensation. Deqi is often reported as a dull ache, numbness or heaviness. The needles were then manipulated every 5 minutes to maintain the Deqi sensation and the needles were retained for a total time of 30 minutes.
A total of five treatments per week at a rate of one per day (Monday through Friday) for two weeks were administered for a grand total of 10 acupuncture sessions. All acupuncture needling was performed by experienced acupuncturists. At a six month follow-up examination, the P7 acupuncture group showed a significant improvement over the control group.
Shi Ping Zhang, Tsui-Pik Yip, and Qiu-Shi Li. Acupuncture Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Six Months Follow-Up. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative, Medicine, Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 154108.
Acupressure & Nausea and Vomiting
Despite the use of antiemetic drugs, chemotherapy commonly causes severe nausea and vomiting in patients. But scientists have discovered that acupressure may hold the solution to the problem. Researchers at the Northern Ireland Radiotherapy centre, Belvoir Park Hospital, Belfast (1), found that of 105 patients who had failed to respond favourably to drug therapy, acupressure succeeded in preventing nausea and vomiting in 66% of the patients and, in fact, only 6% of the patients failed to benefit from the acupressure treatment.
The acupressure was given alongside the antiemetic drugs and although there were no side effects, the benefits only lasted 6-8 hours. This presented no problem for hospitalized patients where the treatment could be repeated when needed, but it was a problem for out-patients. The researchers therefore looked for ways of extending the antiemetic action of the acupressure and eventually found the answer. Simply by placing an elasticated wrist band with a stud placed over the acupuncture point (P6), and pressed regularly for up to 24 hours. The treatment work for all (20/20) of the hospitalized patients and 75% (15/20) of the out-patients. ( The researchers summarised that the treatment was more effective for hospitalized patients, because unlike out-patients, they were regularly encouraged to to press the stud on the acupuncture point.
The researcher concluded that a commercially available elasticated with a plastic stud (sea sickness band) would be an effective method of applying pressure to point P6 and alleviating vomiting and nausea induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients.
In another study (2), 162 general surgical patients were randomly selected to receive one of three treatments for post operative nausea and vomiting:
i. acupressure using elasticated bands containing a plastic button to apply sustained pressure to at the P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point above the wrist,
ii. control dummy bands without the pressure button bands,
iii. Antiemetic injections of Prochlorperazine
All patients received papaveretum injections as required for pain, and additional prochlorperazine injections were prescribed if nausea was not controlled in groups 1 and 2. The severity of nausea was assessed using linear analogue scale and was significantly reduced by acupressure in comparison to both the placebo and drug groups. The incidence of post operative vomiting, and the need fo unplanned antiemetic injections was also reduced by acupressure, and the researchers were so impressed by the results that they recommended that acupressure should be investigated in other clinical situations as well.
1. Prolongation of the antiemetic action of P6 acupuncture by acupressure in patients having cancer chemotherapy. Dundee JW; Yang J northern Ireland Radiotherapy centre, Belvoir Park Hospital, Belfast. JR soc med (ENGLAND) Jun 1990, 83 (6) p360-2
Post operative nausea is relieved by acupressure. Barsoum G; Perry EP; Fraser IA Department of surgery, Walsgrave General Hospital, Coventry. JR soc med (ENGLAND) Feb 1990, 83 (2) p86-9
Acupressure & Nausea and Vomiting after Gynaecological Surgery
Acupuncture and acupressure have previously been reported to possess an antiemetic effect. Researchers at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital in
Linkoping, Sweden investigated this action for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV).
Sixty women undergoing outpatient minor gynaecological surgery were entered into a double-blind and randomised study. One group received acupressure with bilateral stimulation of P6 (A), a second group received bilateral placebo stimulation (P) and a third group received no acupressure wrist band and served as a reference group (R). PONV was evaluated as number of patients with complete response (no PONV), nausea only or vomiting. In addition, the need for rescue antiemetic medication and nausea after 24 h was registered.
Complete response was obtained in 11, 11 and 9 patients in groups, A, P and R, respectively. Nine, 7 and 6 patients had nausea before discharge home, and 1, 1 and 8 patients were nauseated (8 vs 1 patient: P < 0.05) 24 h after operation in A, P and R groups, respectively. When compared to placebo acupressure (2 patients vomited and 5 needed rescue), significantly (P < 0.05) fewer needed rescue antiemetic medication after acupressure at P6 (no vomiting or rescue medication). When compared to the observation group (5 vomited and 4 needed rescue antiemetics), significantly fewer vomited after acupressure (P < 0.05)
The study concluded that patients undergoing brief gynaecological surgery, placebo effect of acupressure decreased nausea after 24 h but vomiting and need of rescue antiemetics was reduced only by acupressure with the correct P6 point stimulation.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999 Mar;43(3):270-4 Alkaissi A, Stalnert M, Kalman S
Acupressure & Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
Postoperative nausea and vomiting are still common problems after general anesthesia, especially in ambulatory surgery. Drug therapy is often complicated with central nervous system symptoms. Researchers studied the use of acupressure at the Pericardium 6 (P.6) (Nei-Guan) meridian point as a method of alleviating postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Two hundred consecutive healthy patients undergoing a variety of short surgical procedures were included in a randomized, double-blind study: 108 patients were in the acupressure group (Group 1) and 92 patients were in the control group (Group 2). Spherical beads of acupressure bands were placed at the P.6 points in the anterior surface of both forearms in Group 1 patients, while in Group 2 they were placed inappropriately on the posterior surface. The acupressure bands were placed before induction of anesthesia and were removed 6 h postoperatively. They were covered with a soft cotton wrapping to conceal them from the blinded observer who evaluated the patients for presence of nausea and vomiting and checked the order sheet for any antiemetics prescribed. In both groups, the age, gender, height, weight, and type and duration of surgical procedures were all comparable without significant statistical difference. In Group 1, only 25 of 108 patients (23%) had nausea and vomiting as compared to Group 2, in which 38 of 92 patients (41%) had nausea and vomiting (P = 0.0058).
The report concluded that acupressure at the P.6 (Nei-Guan) point is an effective prophylaxis for postsurgical nausea and vomiting and therefore a good alternative to conventional antiemetic treatment.
Anesth Analg 1997 Apr;84(4):821-5, Fan CF, Tanhui E, Joshi S, Trivedi S, Hong Y, Shevde K, Department of Anesthesiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, 11219, USA.
Acupressure Wrist Bands & Travel Sickness
Following reports relating the successful use of acupressure in the alleviation of morning sickness and nausea/vomiting following surgery ( see ALTERNATIVES in health™ vol. 1:1;6 & 2:3;4), researchers at the Maven Laboratories, Inc., Citrus Heights, California, USA investigated the use of acupressure wrist bands for the relief of motion (or travel) sickness.
Nausea and vomiting caused by motion sickness are serious and sometimes debilitating symptoms for people who travel by sea and air (as well as astronauts). In order to treat these symptoms, a portable acupressure device, known as 'the Relief Band', was designed to deliver acustimulation to the Neiguan (P6) acupuncture point on the traveller's wrist.
Nine volunteers used the device on (I) a placebo point or (ii) the P6 active point on the open seas outside the San Francisco Bay. Motion sickness symptoms were then graded from 1 (meaning that the person was 'feeling fine') to 5 (meaning that the person was feeling 'intermittent vomiting, with or without nausea').
Five of the people with motion sickness initially positioned the device at the placebo site and reported minimal symptom improvement (falling from an average of 3.6 to 3.4), whereas the other four subjects initially used the device in the P6 position and reported decreased symptoms (falling from 4.3 to 1.0).
The position of the Relief Band was then switched; in the four subjects who switched to the placebo position, symptoms worsened (rising from 1.0 back up to 4.0 ); whereas, in the five subjects where the device was switched to the P6 position, symptoms improved in all of the subject s( falling from an average of 3.4 to 1.0).
The report concluded that motion sickness symptoms were clearly suppressed by the portable acustimulation in field studies of seasickness. The Relief Band may therefore offer an effective alternative to drug treatments of the nausea and vomiting related to seasickness.
Although this was a small study, it was conducted using an excellent cross-over, double-blind protocol and provides strong evidence to support the use of acupressure wrist bands to alleviate travel sickness.
Bertolucci LE; DiDario B. Efficacy of a portable acustimulation device in controlling seasickness.
Aviat Space Environ Med (UNITED STATES) Dec 1995, 66 (12) p1155-8
Effects of acupressure therapy for patients having prolonged mechanical ventilation support.
Tsay, S.-L., Wang, J.-C., Lin, K.-C. and Chung, U.-L. (2005), Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52: 142-150. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03576.x
. This paper reports an investigation of the effects of acupressure therapy on dyspnoea, anxiety and physiological indicators of heart rate and respiratory rate in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having mechanical ventilation support.
. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are using mechanical ventilation often experience dyspnoea and anxiety, which affects successful ventilator use.
. The study had an experimental blocking design, using sex, age and length of ventilator use as a blocking factor. Qualified patients in two intermediate respiratory intensive care units were randomly assigned to an acupressure group and a comparison group. A total of 52 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in northern Taiwan participated. Those in the experimental group received daily acupressure therapy and massage treatment for 10 days. Patients in the comparison group received massage treatment and handholding. The primary outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for dyspnoea and anxiety, and physiological indicators of heart rate and respiratory rate. Data were collected every day from baseline (day 1), during the treatment (days 2-10) and follow-up (days 11-17). Data were analysed using generalized estimation equations. The study was carried out in 2003.
. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were using prolonged mechanical ventilatory support experienced high levels of dyspnoea and anxiety. Dyspnoea (P = 0·009), anxiety (P = 0·011) and physiological indicators (P < 0·0001) in the acupressure group improved statistically significantly over time when compared with those of the comparison group.
. This results support the suggestion that acupressure therapy could decrease sympathetic stimulation and improve perceived symptoms of dyspnoea and anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are using prolonged mechanical ventilation.
The influence of acupressure on the monitoring of acoustic evoked potentials in unsedated adult volunteers
Dullenkopf A, Schmitz A, Lamesic G, Weiss M, Lang A. . Anesth Analg 2004;99:1147-51.
Approaches for monitoring depth of anesthesia can be influenced by things other than anesthetics. In this study, we evaluated the influence of acupressure on the A-line autoregressive index (AAI) and on stress levels in unsedated volunteers. Fifteen unsedated adult volunteers received pressure on the acupuncture Extra 1 point (EP) and on a control point for 10 min on different days. AAI was recorded 5 min before, during, and 5 min after the interventions. Before and after the procedures, the volunteers quantified their level of stress by means of a visual analog stress scale (VSS; 0-100). Corresponding data were compared by Wilcoxon's signed rank test (Bonferroni correction, P < 0.05). Data are median (range). AAI decreased from 73 (40-99) to 53 (33-94) after 10 min of pressure on EP (P = 0.0044). Five minutes after release of pressure there was no difference compared with initial values. There was a statistically significant difference between VSS before and after pressure on EP (36 [7-67] to 15 [0-44]; P = 0.0066), but not on control point. In conclusion, there was a wide range of AAI values in awake volunteers. The AAI was influenced by acupressure performed on the EP in unsedated adult volunteers. Acupressure on this point significantly reduced stress levels.
: This study shows that the A-line autoregressive index, a tool for monitoring depth of anesthesia, can be influenced by acupressure. Ten minutes of acupressure on the Extra 1 point but not on a control point significantly reduced stress levels in unsedated adult volunteers.
Effect of Acupressure on Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy Cycle for Korean Postoperative Stomach Cancer Patients
Shin, Yeong Hee PhD, RN; Kim, Tae Im PhD, RN; Shin, Mi Sook MSN, RN; Juon, Hee-Soon PhD
Cancer Nursing: July/August 2004 - Volume 27 - Issue 4 - pp 267-274
Despite the development of effective antiemetic drugs, nausea and vomiting remain the main side effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acupressure on emesis control in postoperative gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Forty postoperative gastric cancer patients receiving the first cycle of chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil were divided into control and intervention groups (n = 20 each). Both groups received regular antiemesis medication; however, the intervention group received acupressure training and was instructed to perform the finger acupressure maneuver for 5 minutes on P6 (Nei-Guan) point located at 3-finger widths up from the first palmar crease, between palmaris longus and flexor carpi radialis tendons point, at least 3 times a day before chemotherapy and mealtimes or based on their needs. Both groups received equally frequent nursing visits and consultations, and reported nausea and vomiting using Rhode's Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching. We found significant differences between intervention and control groups in the severity of nausea and vomiting, the duration of nausea, and frequency of vomiting. This study suggests that acupressure on P6 point appears to be an effective adjunct maneuver in the course of emesis control.
Pressure on Acupoints Decreases Postoperative Pain
Felhendler, David P.T.; Lisander, Björn M.D., Ph.D.
Clinical Journal of Pain: December 1996 - Volume 12 - Issue 4 - pp 326-329
Our objective was to study the analgesic effect of acupoint pressure on postoperative pain in a controlled single-blind study. Forty patients undergoing knee arthroscopy in an ambulatory surgery unit in a university-affiliated hospital were randomized to receive either an active stimulation (AS) or a placebo stimulation (PS) 30 min after awakening from anesthesia.
We stimulated 15 classical acupoints in the AS group, on the side contralateral to surgery, with a firm pressure and a gliding movement across the acupoint. In the PS group, 15 nonacupoints were subjected to light pressure in the same areas as the acupoints in the AS group. We assessed pain using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) before sensory stimulation, after 30 and 60 min, and after 24 h. We recorded heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, and skin temperature before stimulation and after 30 and 60 min. We assessed skin blood flow with laser Doppler before stimulation and after 1 and 30 min. Sixty minutes and 24 h after AS, VAS pain scores were lower than in the placebo group (p < 0.05 and 0.0001, respectively). There were no significant changes in the autonomic variables.
The results indicate that pressure on acupoints can decrease postoperative pain.
Korean Hand Acupressure for Motion Sickness in Prehospital Trauma Care: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Trial in a Geriatric Population
Petra Bertalanffy, MD,
Klaus Hoerauf, MD,
Roman Fleischhackl, MD†,
Helmut Strasser, BS,
Franziska Wicke, MD,
Manfred Greher, MD,
Burkhard Gustorff, MD, DEAA and
Alexander Kober, MD
Patients with trauma or medical illnesses transported to the hospital by ambulance have a frequent incidence of motion sickness. Because the administration of drugs in the ambulance is prohibited by law in Austria, the noninvasive Korean hand acupressure point at K-K9 may be an alternative against nausea and vomiting. We enrolled 100 geriatric patients with minor trauma, randomizing them into a K-K9 group and a sham acupressure group. We recorded visual analog scores (VAS) for nausea and for the patient’s overall satisfaction with the treatment, hemodynamic variables, and peripheral vasoconstriction. In the K-K9 group, a significant (P < 0.01) increase in nausea was recorded in all cases: from VAS of 0 mm to 25 ± 6 mm. A similarly significant (P < 0.01) increase was registered in the sham group: from VAS of 0 mm to 83 ± 8 mm. However, at the time of arrival in the hospital, nausea scores were significantly different between the K-K9 group and the sham group (P < 0.01). Although all patients had been vasoconstricted at the emergency site before treatment, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between groups with regard to the number of vasoconstricted patients at the hospital (4 and 46 constricted and dilated, respectively, in the K-K9 group versus 48 and 2 constricted and dilated, respectively, in the sham group). On arrival in the hospital, a significant difference (P < 0.01) in heart rate was noted between the K-K9 group and the sham group (65 ± 6 bpm versus 98 ± 8 bpm). The patients’ overall satisfaction with the provided care was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the K-K9 group (19 ± 9 mm VAS) than in the sham group (48 ± 12 mm VAS). Neither group experienced a significant change in blood pressure. K-K9 stimulation was an effective and simple treatment for nausea during emergency care and significantly improved patient satisfaction.
: Korean hand acupressure at the K-K9 point was effective in reducing nausea and subjective symptoms of motion sickness in emergency trauma transport of patients at high risk of motion sickness.
Older people often experience motion sickness during public road transport (1) and ambulance rides (2). Motion sickness aggravates the discomfort of patients being transported by ambulance. Typical symptoms include epigastric discomfort, nausea, headache, and cold sweat (3). The most severe form of motion sickness is accompanied by vomiting (4). Sick patients experience increased heart rate, hypertension, and arteriolar vasoconstriction. Because paramedics in Europe are not allowed to give antiemetic drugs, the possibility of using non–drug-based therapies to reduce motion sickness during ambulance transport and thus providing better care for these patients is worthy of investigation.
In contrast to Chinese acupuncture, Korean hand acupuncture is a relatively new method; it was first developed and described by the Korean physician T-W Yoo. Two publications (5,6) have focused on the antiemetic effect of the method. Both studies revealed that stimulation of Korean acupuncture points, also with acupressure, had a strong effect on postoperative nausea in high-risk populations. We therefore hypothesized that the K-K9 point, which is located in the middle phalanx of the fourth finger on both hands, produces a similar antiemetic effect on patients with motion sickness during transport in acute trauma care. On the basis of these data, we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study to test the hypothesis that Korean hand acupressure at the K-K9 point reduces motion sickness during the ride to the hospital in trauma care.
The effects of stimulation of acupressure point p6 on postoperative nausea and vomiting:
a review of literature. Nunley C, Wakim J, Guinn C. - Anesthesiologists
Anesthesiologists Associates PC, Chattanooga, TN, USA.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can complicate and delay patient recovery from general and neuraxial anesthesia. Even with a new generation of anesthetic drugs and antiemetics, a high number of patients are affected by PONV. PONV has a multifactor etiology, but there are ways to reduce its occurrence. Although it is not a traditionally recognized method, stimulation of acupressure points, specifically P6,
has been identified as a potentially effective method of reducing PONV. This study is a state of the science paper reviewing research on both pharmacologic and
nonpharmacologic prophylaxis and various methods of acupressure. It was conducted to add information to the currently available knowledge regarding PONV in hopes
of stimulating the use of acupressure for treatment of PONV. The study is divided into six categories: pathophysiology of PONV, background studies of PONV,
nonpharmacologic prophylaxis, pharmacological prophylaxis, acupressure and related techniques, and benefits of routine antiemetic prophylaxis.
Gen Dent. 2000 Jul-Aug;48(4):446-52.
Acupuncture/acupressure to treat gagging dental patients: a clinical study of anti-gagging effects.
Lu DP, Lu GP, Reed JF 3rd.
Noninvasive methods advocated by some clinicians are not very successful in dealing with patient gagging, while sedation approaches run the risk of the patient aspirating foreign bodies.
The P-6 Neikuan acupuncture point, located on the wrist, has been used in the Far East for thousands of years for its anti-nausea and anti-anxiety properties.
In the West, it is the acupuncture point most studied. Only recently has interest been shown in the P-6 point for its possible anti-gagging effect. The anti-gagging effect of P-6 stimulation is documented in this article.
The P-6 point has remarkable anti-gagging effects if stimulation is applied correctly. Clinicians may apply thumb pressure at the P-6 point to achieve some effect, although this is not as effective as acupuncture.
Nevertheless, a substantial percentage of gagging patients would be able to go through dental procedures without gagging when the P-6 point is stimulated.
Goal-Directed Acupuncture in Sports Placebo or Doping?
Taras I. Usichenko, Vasyl Gizhko, and Michael Wendt
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Germany, November 2009
Acupuncture points, used for stimulation to improve the sports' performance in top modern pentathlon athlete
Acupuncture points ST36 and GB34, situated on the proximal latero-anterior surface of the lower leg, were stimulated before running.
Acupuncture points of the upper extremities LI4, 10, 11; TH 5
and GB21 were used to relieve arm fatigue during fencing and stiffness of the shoulder muscles during swimming.
Acupuncture point H7, situated on the distal ulnar part of the forearm was used to treat general excitement and tremor of dominant arm during shooting.
Acupuncture point GV26, situated in the midline of the upper lip, was used, as the point for general tonification.
Acupressure for primary dysmenorrhoea: A systematic review
Hospital of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
Korean scientists conducted the analysis, identifying four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved a total of 458 participants.
Two studies reported "significant improvements in the severity of pain for acupressure compared with sham acupressure on non-acupoints."
The remaining trials documented positive changes in anxiety and reductions in the use of pain medication in those receiving acupressure treatment.
Cardiovascular benefits of acupressure (Jin Shin) following stroke
Kristina L. McFadden,
Theresa D. Hernández
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder
Effectiveness of acupressure for residents of long-term care facilities with insomnia: A randomized controlled trial
The experimental group has significantly better scores on the AIS-T compared to the control group, not only during the intervention period, but also extending after intervention.
Offering acupressure on a regular basis has the potential to improve insomnia in residents of long-term care facilities. Acupressure on the HT7 point
may improve insomnia for up to 2 weeks after the intervention.
Effect of Acupressure and Trigger Points in Treating Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Lisa Li-Chen Hsieh,
Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen,
Amy Ming-Fang Yen
The study suggests "that 1 month of acupressure treatment is more effective in reducing chronic headache than 1 month of muscle relaxant treatment, and that the effect remains 6 months after treatment”.
More Information about acupressure treatment:
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
- Acupressure Locations of the Hand and Wrist
The Chi Focus Band is the favorite of elite athletes for whom balance, strength and flexibility are important as well as
students and individuals seeking focus in their lives.